Tag Archives: Health

Electronic Cigarettes

Jamie Slade, Utah Valley University


Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are gaining in popularity. Unfortunately, this increase is occurring at a time when we lack a definitive understanding of the health hazards. It is important for professionals to understand e-cigarette users’ experiences and satisfaction with the devices in order to determine what may entice users to begin and continue using these devices.

E-cigarette users were recruited from the e-cigarette forum website and completed an online survey inquiring about their perceptions, experiences, and satisfaction with e-cigarettes.

Approximately 99% of participants reported satisfaction with e-cigarettes, with 81% reporting very high satisfaction levels. Nearly 99% enjoy the taste of e-cigarettes, including 88% who use flavored nicotine e-liquid. Only 19% felt a burning sensation in the throat, and 55% experienced dry mouth. 57% percent struggled with liquid leaking from their e-cigarette and 47% had an e-cigarette break down.

The overall satisfaction rate of e-cigarette users is high, despite some of the negative side effects of use such as dry mouth, burning throat, or the devices breaking down. Awareness of the experience and perception of e-cigarette users will help educators, researchers, and federal regulators better understand (1) why e-cigarette users continue to use the devices, (2) what may entice current smokers (and some non-smokers) to begin using e-cigarettes, and (3) the importance of the need for valid information regarding the effects of e-cigarettes.

HiFidelity Simulation in Nursing Lab

Tianne Pierce, Utah Valley University


Since Mario and Zelda (Nintendo video games), video interactive games have been a favorite babysitter for the past two generations of children, simulation is no stranger to this population. Portions of this population became nursing students. Simulation in health care is second to none in the ‘hands on’ teaching of skills; thus, it would be the natural order of things to include interactive figures and scenario during teaching and learning in nursing. Utah Valley University’s nursing department employs the use of human simulators in the delivery of content to the students. It is no surprise that these students relate well to simulation in the classrooms. The purpose of the research study will be to compare students’ responses to learning in a teaching environment void of simulation vs. a teaching environment which uses simulation. Although simulation has long been used in aviation and the military, it has become more integrated in the health care profession over the last 20 years. These study results were congruent with national and international landmark studies where the use of simulation in nursing has been supported by the world of healthcare.

Russian Student Nurses Collaboration: A Learning Adventure

Abigail Harris, Brigham Young University


The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of international student collaboration activities between Brigham Young University (BYU) and Russian nursing students in comparing and contrasting cultures, healthcare systems, and nursing practice.

Research Question/ Hypothesis:
What is the student’s perception of international collaboration experiences? Was the prepatory contact effective at enhancing the international collaboration experience?

Setting- BYU, Provo, Utah and Nursing School #1, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.

Sample-9 BYU and 9 Russian nursing students As part of the global health course students from BYU were paired with students from Nursing School #1 to collaborate on a health care topic to be jointly presented, while in Russia.

Instruments-17-item paper questionnaire

Procedures-IRB and Russian nursing school approval obtained. All participating students completed consent prior to survey administration.

Data Analysis-Responses entered into Qualtrics for descriptive quantitative analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed for themes.

Findings-Students believed that working with a foreign peer increased their understanding of health care issues in another culture, increased their communication skills, and increased their self- confidence. Implications for Nursing-Intercultural learning experience allows students from both schools to grow in the areas of understanding other cultures and nursing practices, communication, and self-confidence. Facilitating the interactions between nursing students from different cultures, allows them to be better prepared to serve and care for patients with differing cultures once they are working as a nurse.

Global experiences and exposure assists nursing students to become more culturally competent, as well as increases their overall communication abilities and self-confidence. This preliminary study had positive student outcomes, which is a good indicator that this type of global interchange experience between student nurses should be replicated and studied in other countries.

The Effects of RaLight on Stress

Paydon Newman and Joseph Rebman, Dixie State University


Several studies (Shepley, 2012; Sherman-Bien, 2011; Walch, 2010) have found that sunlight has a stress-reducing effect on those who are exposed to it. An innovative new design of artificial lighting known as RaLight is proposed to reflect light with a color rendering index nearly identical to natural sunlight. This study will examine the relationship between exposure to RaLight (as a substitute for sunlight) and levels of stress. RaLight is predicted to decrease levels of stress in test subjects. In a commercial call center setting, test subjects will consist of an estimated 50 employees both male and female with ages ranging from 18 to 30 years. This research is designed as a single subject experiment (ABA). The initial control condition will be the common indoor environment which exposes patients to standard fluorescent lighting. Replacing light fixtures with RaLight will then establish both the second phase of the experiment and the independent variable. A follow up re-installment of the initial fluorescent lighting will be conducted post-RaLight phase. Throughout each phase, questionnaires regarding the overall well-being of employees will be completed.

Hydration Status of Division I Collegiate Football P layers during Summer T wo-a-day Training

Trey Esplin, Alathia Burnside, Sean Madill, Marquelle Funk, Sean Kiesel, Kaisey Margetts,
Kylee Nichols, Teal Palmer, Liz Pearce, Jacey Stucker, and Jonathan Conley, Southern Utah University


Mild to moderate dehydration of two percent can result in both physical and mental impairments in athletes. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of Division I college football players at Southern Utah University during their summer two-a- day training. Players indicated in a survey that hydration is very important to their performance on the field, and 52.5 % believe they drink enough fluid to be well hydrated. Voids were collected and urine specific gravity (USG) recorded both before and after the morning and afternoon training sessions, and again the following morning. This enabled researchers to identify the hydration status players began practice with, whether they were able to maintain that status during practice, and whether they took the opportunity to rehydrate after practice. Changes in hydration status were determined using USG measured with a hand-held digital refractometer. Using team averages, initial measurements indicated that athletes came to practice and left practice significantly dehydrated, rehydrated to a level of minimal dehydration maintained through afternoon practice, and then began practice the next day even more significantly dehydrated than on day one. After additional recruitment and inadvertent education, hydration status improved, yet players were only minimally dehydrated during both training sessions and maintained that status the next morning. Although hydration status improved in response to education, increased awareness, and third party encouragement; players were never adequately hydrated.

A Pollution Solution: Indoor Air Quality of St. George, Utah

Whittni O’Brien, Dixie State University


St. George residents are currently at risk from poor indoor air quality. The objective of this study was to provide citizens with simple solutions to purify their indoor air and avoid the side effects of pollution. The rising threats include benzene, formaldehyde and trichloroethylene. These carcinogens are directly linked to heart disease, birth defects, asthma and premature deaths in individuals. The study was conducted to see just what could be done to combat these hazards and provide the necessary information to resolve the levels of indoor air pollution to residents. A standardized questionnaire was issued to find out how educated locals were about the pollution levels and air quality within the community. Questions covered a variety of aspects including exactly what the threats were to specific methods of indoor air purification. To reduce the number of carcinogenic related health issues, participants were provided with a pamphlet including easy to follow steps to cleaner indoor air and outdoor air pollution. The objective result yielded plants to be the best solution. Aloe vera plants are not only grown locally, but are easy to propagate. These plants are known for their ability to remove formaldehyde from the air and therefore an inexpensive and readily available resource that will assist residents. Other solutions found included greenery such as moth orchids, snake plants and the ficus tree. All of these plants are easy to maintain with local climate conditions. By providing residents with the proper education and resources, the overall health of the population will rise. The conclusion of the study offers vital knowledge to the community and a progressive approach to cleaner indoor air for a healthier living space.

Understanding the Importance of Intraosseous Therapy

Erika Brown and Stacie Hunsaker, Brigham Young University


Health care professionals are often challenged with starting an intravenous (IV) line in patients who are dehydrated, have suffered trauma, or are in shock. Nurses and physicians can become frustrated by the multiple attempts and patients can lose valuable time. An alternative route to deliver the needed fluids and medications to these critical patients can be achieved by accessing the blood supply inside the bone. Intraosseous (IO) access is a safe, rapid, and an effective alternative method to deliver medications and fluids to these critical patients (Hunsaker and Hillis, 2013). I was mentored in the practice of qualitative research and interview process in a study related to difficult IV access. A qualitative research study was performed at Hospital Luis Vernaza in Guayaquil, Ecuador, to determine the complications faced in providing timely care to critical patients, and to assess their knowledge and use of IO therapy. Interviews were performed, and, because of my fluency in the Spanish language, I was the primary interviewer. These interviews were analyzed to assess the need of interventional IO therapy. Through the interviews, preliminary results demonstrated a need for an organized IV algorithm in this large hospital. The difficult IV algorithm has been developed and will be presented to the health care professionals at Hospital Luis Vernaza in the spring of 2015 on a Brigham Young University College of Nursing Global Health stay in Guayaquil, Ecuador.

The Contribution of Patient Size and Backscatter to Dose in Diagnostic Imaging

Delena Hanson, Dixie State University


Debate in diagnostic imaging over the effectiveness of shielding the patient from the incident (primary) beam compared to shielding from the scattering beam once it has hit the image receptor is ongoing. Because radiation in any amount can cause long term effects, it is the ethical obligation of those in the profession to keep the dose of radiation to the patient as low as reasonably achievable. Backscatter is radiation that goes through the patient, contributes to the diagnostic image, then still has enough energy to hit the image receptor and scatter back toward the patient. While previous studies indicate that dose to the gonads from the primary beam during chest x-ray exams are low, this additional research assesses the amount of backscatter that happens during a chest x-ray to determine at what point patient size is a factor that increases patient dose. As more technique must be used for larger patients, increased interactions will occur and therefore present a higher probability of backscatter that can add to the patient’s gonadal dose. This research quantifies whether and at what point placing a lead shield between the patient and the image receptor will reduce dose to the patient by measuring the thickness of a patient receiving chest x-ray and using a pocket dosimeter to measure the amount of radiation scattering back from the patient to compare with data from the incident beam.

Hysteresis and Motor Planning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Daisha L. Cummins, Kodey Meyers, and Breanna E. Studenka, Utah State University


Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit rigidity of motor plans and difficulties planning and executing movements (Eigsti et al., 2013). Those with ASD may also have difficulty formulating new or switching between different motor plans. In typically developing individuals, sequential actions exhibit hysteresis, a phenomenon where a specific motor plan is influenced by recent, similar motor actions. We sought to determine if hysteresis was stronger in children with ASD. A rotation motor task measured the rigidity of motor planning (hysteresis) of five ASD children, and 5 control participants. A stick was placed in one of 24 different orientations around a circle. The researcher moved the stick counterclockwise or clockwise in subsequent trials. A participant grasped the stick and returned it to the home position. Researchers measured the position at which the child switched from a thumb up to a thumb down grasp in each direction. The peak counterclockwise switch occurred later for children with ASD. The grasp also changed less frequently for the ASD than for the control group. Our results suggest that changing a grasp was more costly than being comfortable, and that hysteresis was more prevalent in children with ASD than in the control group.

Accuracy of Blood and Fluid Loss Estimation: A Comparison Among Healthcare Team Members

Diana Carter, Brigham Young University


The purpose of this quantitative study is to determine the accuracy of blood and fluid loss estimation by student nurses, registered nurses, and healthcare providers. Hypothesis: Visual estimation of blood and fluid loss by student nurses, registered nurses, and healthcare providers is inaccurate.

Data was collected via convenience sampling at BYU and at various IHC hospitals in Utah County. Subjects included nursing students, registered nurses, patient care technicians, EMTs, paramedics, and other allied healthcare professionals. Eight scenarios with varying degrees of simulated blood and fluid loss were presented to the participants on the day of each sampling. Subjects were given an implied consent form and survey to record estimations and demographic information. Data analysis was completed using SPSS.

Students’ mean estimates were significantly different than actual volumes for six of eight scenarios, and professionals’ mean estimates were significantly different for two of eight scenarios. The larger the volume of liquid the less accurate the estimates, and for all scenarios, individual estimates varied widely indicating that consistency is a problem. Four of eight scenarios were significantly underestimated, and professionals tended to underestimate in all scenarios except two.

The ability of healthcare professionals to correctly quantify blood and fluid loss is an important factor in providing quality care as it often directs healthcare interventions. Underestimation can lead to delays in treatment and can be detrimental to the patient. Overestimation can lead to needless, wasteful, costly, and often times dangerous treatments placing the patient at risk for harm and additional comorbidities. Professionals must accurately estimate the quantity of blood loss from their patients in order to provide quality care.

Visual estimation of blood and fluid loss is inaccurate and inconsistent, and other methods, such as the gravimetric method, should be used to quantify losses in clinical practice.