Tag Archives: Business

Gender wage gap at Southern Utah University

Jessica Mancuso, Southern Utah University

Abstract Is there a gender wage gap among faculty at Southern Utah University? We have all heard talks and read articles about the gender pay gap in different nations. We all know that gender pay gap exists and people spend hours and hours talking about it every day on the news, in class, or even among friends. For this reason, I have decided to see if there is a gender pay gap among the professors in my university. This will hopefully open a dialogue among the students and faculty at SUU on gender pay gap; and if the results show that there is a gender pay gap see what explains it or can be done about it. The data that I used for this study comes from the SUU website where the salary, education, and position of faculty members can be found. Holding for years of education, age, position, gender, and department women seem to earn less than men. Given that the results show a difference in wages I will then estimate a bias to try to explain why women earn less than men.

An Analysis for Two Methodologies for Measuring Human Capital

Eric Gibson, Weber State University

Economists have been studying economic growth since the 19th century, when National Accounts were first used to track country output statistics. Since then, governments interested in the welfare of their citizens and relative strength of their economy have tracked important economic indicators, such as total national output or Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to see how their output and economy have changed over time. The astonishing number and variety of models created by economists to explain economic growth has led to many different ‰ÛÏschools‰Û of thought, each making different assumptions about the way the economy works. While these contributions have been useful for researchers in the same ‰ÛÏschool,‰Û they tend to ignore the contributions of researchers in other schools who are trying to measure the same phenomena. It behooves us, therefore, to find ways to reconcile and combine these theories to get a better, more inclusive understanding of economic growth. My research contributes to the knowledge already created by other researchers by combining two of the fundamental theories for economic growth: the Solow Growth Model and the Romer Endogenous Model, thereby adding technological growth to the Solow Model. This combined model is then used to test two different methodologies of measuring human capital: the SCHOOL method as used by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil (1992) and the Human Capital Index (HCI), a relatively new statistic used by the World Economic Forum. My research then empirically tests each method of measuring human capital to determine which one is better at estimating economic growth. The research uses data from the Penn World data set, the World Bank, and the Barro-Lee dataset for 97 developed and developing economies around the world. Using the Davidson MacKinnon J-Test to empirically analyze the two methodologies, the SCHOOL method is shown to be a more robust predictor of economic growth than the HCI method.

A Study of the Influence of Sister City Relationships, with a focus on Marketing in International Collegiate Travel

Allison White, Dixie State University

This study closely examines sister city relationships through both a research analysis as well as an extensive case history. The research analysis reviews these relationships through a historical context, focusing on the origination, benefits, factors that contribute to the greatest success of a relationship, and the risks of a destructive relationship. The process of establishing a relationship, marketing the relationship and the specific programs it entails, and the prospective trails sister city relationships will blaze over the next several years are also assessed. The analysis essentially provides a gauge of the overall value of these relationships to a city, based upon historical cases and examples. The case history involves the coordination and marketing efforts of the St. George, Utah, and Ibigawa, Japan, relationship and its subsequent study abroad program. It closely examines the best practices involved in these efforts that can be applied to future efforts pertaining to sister cities and specifically study abroad programs.

Employee Retention: Relationship among Housekeeper‰Ûªs Job Satisfaction, Organizational Workforce, and Racial-Ethnicity within the Global Hospitality Industry in Utah

Madalyn Johnson, Megan Anderson, Utah Valley University

Hotel managers have a long hoped to increase employee retention, productivity, performance, and guest satisfaction, and to decrease the employee turnover through a better understanding of their motivations and attitude toward the hotel. Even the employee turnover is considered to be a major critical factor and problem to the operators and employees themselves as well, there is little to no research examining its causes/factors on an employee‰Ûªs decision to stay or leave. The hospitality management should analyze its organizational workforces in the context of housekeeper‰Ûªs job satisfaction and its relationship with the job performance and cultural diversity since cultural diversity in the hospitality industry abounds in a housekeeping department. The objectives of our research project is to determine the factors addressing this deficiency by testing a causal model of employee‰Ûªs intent to leave and to determine the major contributing work environmental factors toward to their employees decision to stay or leave using a sample from the lodging industry in Utah. A content model of 12 attributes (i.e., job satisfaction factors, rewards, organizational workforces, position level, and racial-ethnicity, etc.) is developed and augmented in the context of previous studies. A survey instrument and questionnaire are developed and translated in Spanish as well since the major housekeepers are Hispanic background. The survey form will be distributed to housekeeping department employees in the hotels in Utah. Respondents are asked on the survey to indicate the overall rating on 12 attributes. Ratings are made on a 5-point Likert Scale. Factor analysis is to be performed to determine and analyze the structure of the correlations among a number of retention factors (variables) by defining a set of common underlying dimensions. Discriminant analysis is applied since one of the research objectives is to determine whether the employees are willing to stay or not (categorical dependent variables). Structural equation model (SEM) is introduced to accommodate multiple interrelated dependence (i.e., retention factors) relationships in a single model (i.e., job turnover). This research and its results will provide empirical evidence that organizational workforce improves job satisfaction and will play an important role in quality and productivity to the racial-ethnicity work environment. In addition, the hospitality management should consider how effective retention management strategies and workforces influence the racial and cultural diversity demographics as they play very important roles in the service oriented industry and their attitudes and behavior may not be in parallel with the traditional organizational culture.

Tourism in Utah as an Economic Development Tool

Jhana Aristondo, Utah Valley University

Tourism in Utah is largely driven by seasonal recreation at its variety of natural-heritage resources. The greatest impacts of tourism have been found mostly during summer and winter months, where recreational sports take the lead in many different activities. Utah is home of the ‰Û÷mighty‰Ûª five national parks: Canyonlands National Park, Arches National Park, Capitol Reef National Park, Bryce Canyon National Park and Zion National Park. From 2000 to 2016, the number of visitors to these parks has increased from 5.3 to 10 million visitors‰ÛÓan increase of 47 percent in merely 16 years‰ÛÓ and has generated more than 625 thousand jobs since 2010. During winter months, Utah‰Ûªs fourteen ski resorts attracts an average of 4 million visitors and supports an estimated 18,000 jobs across the entire state. Recreational spending by tourists and travelers has created a positive impact on Utah‰Ûªs economy. In 2015, tourists‰Ûª expenditures set a high record of $8.17 billion in Utah, which generated $1.15 billion in total state and local tax revenues. This inflow of revenue and the jobs it creates spurs economic development within the state. This study uses VAR ‰ÛÓ a bivariate vector autoregression model ‰ÛÓ to examine the relationship between tourism growth and the non-Income Human Development Index between years 2000 and 2016, and applies the Granger Causality test to determine the casual nature of the relationship. We find evidence of tourism as an economic development tool, which not only accounts for economic growth in revenues, but the improvement of lives among Utah residents‰ÛÓ seen through the increase in output highly dependent on human development and improvement in social welfare.

Range Management: Public Perception of a Fuel Load

Whittni Ananin, Southern Utah University

The gap between public perception of a fuel load and applicable range management is wide. Land managers wish to properly manage invasive species encroachment, but are commonly faced with opposition. Without a proper understanding of a fuel load, rangeland reaches deplorable conditions allowing for unnaturally hot fires to burn. The public currently perceives management techniques such as bull hogging and clear cutting as negative. Similar techniques may be prescribed to restore the ecosystem to a seral stage. In areas such as southern Utah, forests have been permitted to grow older than ever before, leaving these forests incredibly vulnerable to fire. Such devastation has called for swift changes in management practices. Negative connotations predominantly arise from special interest groups without backgrounds in forest management. Our research looks at strategies to bridge the gap between negative perception of forest fires and effective rangeland management. A population diverse poll was conducted to further investigate and educate the gaps within the local community.

Using Eye-tracking to Understand Professional First impressions in a P ersonal Selling Context

Josh Groves, Utah Valley University


This study will discuss the contributions of eye-tracking data in testing first-time viewers of identified professional salespeople. Participants will view the professional portraits of two individuals, a male and female. With the results we hope to show that eye-movement data supplements what users verbally report in their reactions to an individual. In particular, eye-tracking data will reveal which aspects of the person receive more visual attention and in what order they are viewed. As eye-tracking systems have become more sophisticated and affordable, there has been an increasing interest in the use of eye-tracking within the first impression domain (Byrne, Anderson, Douglass, and Matessa, 1999; Kotval and Goldberg, 1998; and Hornof and Halverson, 2003). Despite increased research in this area, it is still not entirely clear exactly how much eye-movement contributes to the viewer’s evaluation of another individual. As part of a comparative test between two professionals’ images, participant eye-movements will be recorded during the initial introduction to the image. The eye-tracking data will be examined to gain additional insight into how users view that individual and what elements attract their attention. Additionally, respondents will be asked to provide their perceptions of five personality dimensions of the two individuals.

Twenty-two undergraduate students (11 female, 11 male) at Utah Valley University will participate in this study. All of the participants will be between ages 18 and 26. A 24” monitor will be integrated with the Tobii X2-60 eye-tracker, which will be used to collect participant eye-gaze data. Participants will be seated approximately 24” away from the monitor. After calibration, participants will be presented with the portrait of one of the individuals and will be given 10 seconds to look over the image. They will then verbally report their impressions of the individual by means of the Big Five Inventory. Post-impression interviews will be held to measure all “Big Five” personality scales: extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. Eye-gaze and eye-plotting software will be used to examine the users’ eye-movements by means of a post-hoc analysis of visual fixations within different areas of interest (AOI). Specifically, the images will be naturally divided into segments of human facial features. The addition of the eye-tracking data will allow sales professionals to better understand exactly what potential buyers are viewing in order to make sense of the seller and form an impression that has direct influence on further interaction.

Inflation and Unemployment in Greece

Qiheng Wu, Weber State University


Research Question
How is the inflation rate related to the unemployment rate in Greece in the last 24 years?

Nowadays, many countries are facing financial or economic problems. Greece, a member of Eurozone, is suffering from their economic puzzles right now. Greece got the level of CCC from sovereign credit ratings agency (AFP 2011). According to a recent report, the unemployment rate of Greece in July was 26.4%. That is an incredibly high number compared with other countries in the world but a good sign for Greece because it shows that the unemployment rate is easing slightly after reaching a peak of 28% in September 2013. At the meantime, the unemployment rate is extremely high in Greece, too. This literature is going to study Greece’s crisis in terms of the relationship between inflation rate and unemployment rate. We hope we can find some causal relationship between inflation and unemployment rates in Greece and link it to Phillips Curve, which may give us some answers about what’s the impact of being a member of Eurozone to Greece’s economy.

Research method
In this research paper, we are going to compare with the data of 12 years before Greece joined the Eurozone and the data 12 years after that. In order to find the relationship between inflation rate and unemployment rate, we will put other possible factors such into “µ” and we will put the unemployment rate as a dependent variable and put the inflation rate as the independent variable to run two regressions with the same regression model but two time periods: Unemployment rate = ß0 + ß1 * Inflation rate + µ. (before 2001) Unemployment rate = ß0 + ß1 * Inflation rate + µ. (after 2001).

The Relationship between Trade Balance, Income and Real Exchange Rate

Wonjin Kim, Weber State University


The trade balance of a country, calculated as total exports minus total imports, measures the impact of foreign trade on the demand for that country’s output. It is proposed that there are generally three key determinants of trade balance, e.g., the real exchange rate, home disposable income, and foreign disposable income. In principle, as the home country’s real exchange rate depreciates (rises), the country is expected to export more and import less. An increase in home country’s income is expected to increase imports and generate a decrease in home country’s trade balance. On the other hand, an increase in foreign income is expected to raise the home country’s trade balance. This paper makes an attempt to explore whether the expected relationships between trade balance, home income, foreign income and real exchange rate holds. The United States is considered the home country and Japan is considered the foreign country in this study. The reason for using Japan as a foreign country is twofold: first data availability and second, Japan is one of the largest trade partner of the United States. We use quarterly data to conduct our study. The sample period spans from 1994 to 2012. We hypothesize that the real exchange rate has a positive relationship with trade balance. Also, we hypothesize that the U.S. income has a negative and Japan’s income has a positive effect on the trade balance of the United States. To test our hypothesis we run a multiple regression. The dependent variable in our regression is trade balance. The independent variables are home and foreign incomes and real exchange rate.

Bridging the GAAP between Accounting Education and Practice

Brock Griffith and David Lewis, Dixie State University


In the past, some accounting researchers have criticized university accounting education programs. In their view, there is a gap between accounting education and practice. According to Sunder (2007), “The accounting curriculums of most business schools are full of theories that have less practical relevance.” The aim of this research is to identify the knowledge of subjects and skills needed for a relevant university accounting program. The views of over 200 professional accountants were sought and data collected using a questionnaire. In addition, several follow-up interviews and discussions were conducted with participants of the study. The findings suggest that the traditional accounting subjects are very important for a relevant accounting education. However, many professionals believe that certain aspects of accounting education are needed but currently the accounting education is not adequately meeting those needs.This paper helps to bridge the gap between academic study in accounting and a career in the professional practices. The results of the research will assist accounting educators in delivering work-ready graduates who will assist in meeting the needs of employers in the accounting profession.